I was playing with population data but I wanted to do something different so I took into account data for a long period.
I prepared population comparator, a tool to compare how the growth of population proceed in countries. Don't get wild and don't select too many countries as it will be impossible to see anything.
The biggest growth of the population was caused by discovering oil. It happened in the United Arab Emirates. In 1960 population of the UAE was 90 thousand so like a small city and in 2013 over 9 million.
If you're a PM or a president and you're browsing the internet for answers how to enlarge the population of your country, you can stop searching, now you only have to find oil and gas resources in the territory of your country. Good luck!